poniedziałek, 21 maja 2018

Ogniomistrz Tolkien
Christian Tolkien (1706–1791) w Garnizonie Gdańskim


Źródło: m.in Garnison Danzig (Facebook)


Na ilustracji gdański grenadier pod Zbrojownią (Wielkim Arsenałem)
M. Deisch, 1765
Christian Tolkien ("Tolckien"; 1706, Krzyżbork – 1791, Gdańsk), praprapradziadek J. R. R. Tolkiena był w Gdańsku żołnierzem miejscowego Garnizonu Miejskiego ("Siesige Stadt Garnisson"), członkiem Kompanii Artyleryjskiej. W 1771 (gdy Ch. Tolkien opisany jest w dokumencie APGd 300,31/109 jako "Feuerwercker") kompania ta miała następujące dowództwo:

Capitain (kapitan), Johann Gottfried Wittwerk
Lieutnant (porucznik), Johann Albert Rudnick
Fänrich (chorąży), Carl Gottfried Reiffke

W 1752, gdy w Peterszawie urodził się prapradziadek Profesora, Johann Benjamin Tolkien (zm. 1819 w Londynie) dowództwo składało się z:

Capitain (kapitan), Johann George Thom.
Lieutnant (porucznik), Jacob Bohnas
Fänrich (chorąży), Johann Stern

W 1790, w przededniu śmierci Christiana Tolkiena i w przededniu zajęcia Gdańska przez Prusy, dowódcami byli:

Capitain (kapitan), Magnus Skepsgardt
Pr. Lieutnant (pierwszy porucznik), Benjamin Friedrich Harder

Kompania Artylerii składała się ze 120 żołnierzy. Ich mundury opisane są następująco: "Blaue Röcke gekleidet mit rotten Rabatten, Kragen und Aermelauffschlaegen, und hatte paille Unterkleiden" – niebieskie fraki z czerwonymi rabatami i mankietami, paliowe (słomkowe) kamizelki i spodnie. Żołnierze Kompanii Artyleryjskiej mieszkali na Biskupiej Górce (dla nich parafią był kościół St Salvator w Petershagen/Peterszawie; dlatego tam chrzczono małych Tolkienów!), a na Starym Mieście głównie przy kościele św. Bartłomieja (ulice Böttchergasse, Schüsseldamm, An der Seyen), gdzie znajdowało się także miejsce zborne straży obywatelskiej (Błękitny Regiment kompanii obywatelskiej Szerokiego Kwartału); w tych oddziałach porucznikiem był w latach 70.-90. XVIII wieku młodszy brat Christiana, obywatel i mistrz kuśnierski, Michael Tolkien, 1708–1795). Na cmentarzu św. Bartłomieja pochowano zaś zięcia Christiana Tolkiena, artylerzystę i stolarza Johanna Carla Bergmanna, oraz jego żonę Eleonorę Renatę, siostrę Londyńskich Braci!

Artyleria Biskupiej Górki w 1759
W księgach parafialnych kościoła St Salvator w Peterszawie znajduję wiele śladów żołnierzy Garnizonu Gdańsk, szczególnie ich śluby. Oto na przykład od 1777 notuje się tam grenadierów, muszkieterów, artylerzystów, kawalerzystów i doboszy z kompanii takich znanych postaci jak major Constantin Dionysius von Bonhorst (Guarnison), major Friedrich Gustav Petersson (Guarnison) czy kapitan Carl Gottlieb Voigt (Leib-Compagnie) albo chorąży Gottfried Christian Ritter (Leib-Compagnie).

Nie znalazłem ogniomistrza Christiana Tolkiena w spisie obywateli z 1770 z prostej przyczyny. W spisie nie ujęto obiektów wojskowych. Christian jako Feuerwerker/ogniomistrz pracował zapewne przy Starej Zbrojowni w budynku zwanym Starą Apteką (było to laboratorium ogniomistrza; istnieje do dziś, będzie miał nową funkcję teatru kameralnego), a jego mieszkanie znajdowało się na tyłach tego budynku (cegła, którą posiadam, to fragment tego budynku). Adres tego miejsca to Hintergasse No. 120, co równa się Klein Schirrmachergasse No. 3 (SN 1967). W tym samym domku znajdował się jednocześnie Dom Cechu Kuśnierzy (tam zorganizowano m.in. ślub córki Michaela Tolkiena w 1777), a w XIX wieku antykwariat Christiana Tolkiena juniora. Możliwe też, że Johann (John) Benjamin Tolkien urodził się na Peterszawie w budynku garnizonu gdańskiego, np. przy Bramie Oruńskiej (Peterszawskiej).
Zwróćmy uwagę na opis ogniomistrza ze starego podręcznika arylerii. Ogniomistrz miał oprócz wojskowych, także cywilne zadania - tworzył miejskie fajerwerki:

Podręcznik artyleryjski z pocz. XIX wieku (polona.pl)
 Biskupia Górka, gdzie Christian Tolkien mieszkał zapewne przy Bastionie Ostroróg w jego czasach wyglądała zapewne tak, jak dziś Gradowa w Gdańsku. Pruska twierdza wygląda jak smajale w Bucklandzie, nieprawdaż?

Tak wyglądała Biskupia Górka w czasach Tolkienów (zdjęcie fortecy pruskiej na Gradowej)

czwartek, 17 maja 2018

Tolkien's ancestor was a Feuerwercker
or an ordnance technician (1770)!

I have discovered that Christian Tolkien had the same abilities as Gandalf!
Last Wednesday (16 May 2018) I visited National Archive in Gdańsk (for the 4th time) and I discivered something very important! In the document APGd 300,31/109 ("Listen Königl. Preussischen Landeskinder übergeben von dem Königl. Preuss. Herrn Legations Raht und Residenten [with an index]") with a list of Prussian subjects living in Polish Danzig (Gdańsk), in the part devoted to the people born in the region of Kreuzburg, Kingdom of Prussia I have found two Tolkien ("Tolckien") brothers: Christian Tolkien (1706–1791) and Michael Tolkien (1708–1795, a Kürschner or furrier, read about him here):

The moment of the discovery
Christian and Michael Tolkien ("Tolckien"), 1770 living in Gdańsk for 30 years
I know that they came to Gdańsk even earlier, in 1724
Full page with the Prussian subjects from Kreuzburg area in Danzig
Thanks to this record now we can be sure that J. R. R. Tolkien's great-great-great-grandfather Christian Tolkien, father of two brothers who emigrated to London in 1770s was a member of the Danzig Garrison as a Feuerwerker (military pyrotechnician, ordnance technician or specialist, literally 'fire worker'; Latin tormentarius or pyrotechnicus), a specialist responsible for the maintenance of ammunition (in the armed forces of German-speaking countries), From the late Middle Ages until the Early modern period a Feuerwerker was a highly specialised artisan with detail knowledge of the closely guarded secrets of making gunpowder – see Wikipedia (Feuerwerker). Due to special knowledge and skills required for their work, the Feuerwerkers were professionally organized and belonged with the privileged layers of the local army. The Feuerwerkers were the military staff in the rank of subordinate to the artillery. The Feuerwerkers were members of a group of people particularly concerned with the manufacture and use of gunpowder and explosive materials. In Gdańsk in the 18th century a Feuerwerker was also helpful in preparing the fireworks for special occasions like royal visits or holidays.

Gdańsk Great Arsenal where Christian Tolkien produced his "pills" and "fireworks"
This house on the left is where the Tolkiens lived in the 18th and 19th c
It still exists!

Pyrotechnic elements on the front side of "Old Pharmacy"
Christian Tolkien (1706–1791, documents connected with his life are here), son of Christianus Tolkien (1663–1746), a baker from Kreuzburg (see here), Prussia, was a Feuerwerker in Gdańsk (Danzig) Garrison. This is why he lived on Bischofsberg (Biskupia Górka, 'Bishop's Hill') where the Danzig artilery was stationed (on Bischofsberg his older son, Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien, a London furrier was born in 1746). This is why his son-in-law was Johann Carl Bergmann (1743–1813), an artilerist from the same Garrison who also lived on Bischofsberg. This is why the Tolkiens worked and even lived by Great Arsenal (Das Große Zeughaus, Wielka Zbrojownia) in Gdańsk (a small house on the back of the "Old Pharmacy", where the "pills" or amunition was produced. It was a house at Hintergaße No. 120 = Klein Schirrmachersgaße No. 1967 [3] where in the 19th century Christian Tolkien junior had his "Tolkien – Antiquary"; I have got a brick from that house in my collection; see here). This is probably why John Benjamin Tolkien (1788–1859), Christian's London grandson was a member of the Worshipful Company of Loriners (loriner is a maker of metal parts for bridles, harnesses, spurs and other horse apparel, especially for army).
So we can see that a direct Professor's ancestor was like Gandalf. He was able to prepare splendid fireworks for special occasions in Gdańsk. And I will now explore the archival documents connected with Danzig Garrison, its artilery, its role on Bischofsberg and in Petershagen where the Tolkiens lived and where they were buried.

poniedziałek, 14 maja 2018

"Dantzic" mentioned in the London documents
(1794, 1813)

I would like to remind you one document which was already described on my blog and another one which I found out two weeks ago. Both documents come from the London archives and tell about the parents of Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien (1746–1813) and John Benjamin Tolkien (1752–1819) who lived in Gdańsk, until the end of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1790s.

(1) The first document which came to me thanks to my American friend, Jerry Aurand, is The Act of Naturalization of Daniel Tolkien (1794) which should be read together with Daniel Tolkien's obituary from The Methodist Magazine (1813):

Source: The National Archives (Kew), Private Act, 34 George III,
c.17-ref. HL/PO/PB/1/1794/34G3n49 date:1794
(found by Jerry Aurand; photo by J. Aurand) 


Daniel Tolkien, son of Christian Tolkien by Euphrisina his Wife 
born at Dantzig 
Document with original signature of Daniel Tolkien
"Your Petitioner was born our of your Majesty Alliegian but hath constantly professed the true Protestant Religion and given Testimony of his Loyalty and Fidelity to his Majesty and the good of this Kingdom" 
(2) Another document comes from 1813 and is connected with Daniel's younger brother, John Benjamin Tolkien (1752–1819). It is a petition of John Benjamin Tolkien (1788–1859), John's son who wanted to receive the addmision to the freedom of the City of London:

Source: London Metropolitan Archive; Reference Number: COL/CHD/FR/02/1380-1386

We find here John Benjamin Tolkien as a "native of Dantzic who came to England about the year 1752 [sic!] when he married a Native of this Country and has resided here ever since and where you Petitioner [J. B. Tolkien, the younger] was born". The Tolkien Junior made a mistake - his father was born in 1752 in Danzig (Gdańsk), he came to England about 1772 and married a native of England (Mary Warner) in 1777!

What is important, John Benjamin Tolkien, J. R. R. Tolkien's great-great-grandfather was described as a "Foreigner". In fact he was a foreigner in London until his death in 1819.

Grave of a foreigner in England, of John Benjamin Tolkien born in Gdańsk,
J. R. R. T.'s g-g-grandfather

"Respectable and religious parents"
A grave of JRRT's g-g-g-grandparents in Gdańsk (1791-1792)

Rococo gravestone from the St Salvator cemetery
As we remember Christian Tolkien and Anna Euphrosina Tolkien are buried in Gdańsk (former Danzig) in St Salvator Neuer Kirchof ("Newer Cemetery"). See here and see the following record from the St Salvator church book (SDL 362896, Ancestry.co.uk):


We can read here that Christian Tolkien (Tolkühn) (1706–1791) from Petershagen, Danzig (today Zaroślak, Gdańsk) was buried on 30 October 1791 in N.K. or Neuer Kirchof ("Newer Cemetery") and his wife Anna Euphrosina (1719–1792) from Petershagen was buried on 3 June 1792 in the same place. From the same document we know that their grandson, their daughter's son, Benjamin Ephraim Bergmann (1784–1790) was buried in the same cemetery. In the same grave? Only this three persons from the Tolkien and Bergmann families were buried in this cemetery. I would love to find the grave of J. R. R. Tolkien's great-great-great-parents. It should be easy because we have a register of all the graves in this place (SDL 362896, Ancestry.co.uk). But I still haven't find the record with the Tolkien (Tollkühn) family name. One of the candidates is grave No. 4 (the gravestones had numbers, see the photo on the left with gravestone No. 13 of "Jacob Dirckssen und seine Erben") where a possible aunt of Benjamin Ephraim is buried. Her name is Regina Elisabeth Bergmann (1829), wife of Johann Friedrich Bergmann from Johannisgaße (Danzig), a Trödlersfrau, 'handlarka starzyzną'.


Another candidate is grave No. 17, grave of the Ziegenhagen and Jantzen families. The Jantzens were furriers in Gdańsk and Michael Tolkien, Christian's brother is buried in Daniel Jantzen's grave in St Katharinen (see here). Florentina Elisabeth Ziegenhagen was a patron of Renata Eleonora Tolkien's baptism on 10 Jule 1756 (see here). Martin Jantzen was a patron of Renata Eleonora's son, Johann Christian (1782–). The Jantzens and the Ziegenhagens were close to the Tolkiens from Petershagen:


 My research is continued...

We know how the cemetery looked like, we know more or less the place where J. R. R. Tolkien's ancestors are buried in Gdańsk. After the Communist disaster, after German cemeteries were destroyed in the 1940s and 1950s it is time to commemorate the Tolkiens from Gdańsk. At least in this was:

Jacob Kabrun is buried in the same cemetery as the Tolkiens






niedziela, 13 maja 2018

The Hobbit and the Freemasons

In J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit published in 1937 on the very first pages we can find two elements which can be considered as Freemason-related. First is this fragment:
"Gandalf, Gandalf! Good gracious me! Not the wandering wizard that gave Old Took a pair of magic diamond studs that fastened themselves and never came undone till ordered? Not the fellow who used to tell such wonderful tales at parties, about dragons and goblins and giants and the rescue of princesses and the unexpected luck of widows' sons?"
The Widow's Son in Freemasonic symbolism applies to Hiram, the architect of the Salomon Temple and his mystery is a part of the Freemasonic initiation.

The second element is this drawing of Bag End by J. R. R. Tolkien:


Which has some elements which can be found in a typical Freemasonic lodge:


Coincidence? Yes, rather coincidence. J. R. R. Tolkien was a devout Roman Catholic and from his biography, writings, letters and his friends' memories we can be sure that he could not be a Freemason.

On the other hand some members of his family were Freemasons in London and Birmingham (see here). Maybe Professor Tolkien was highly knowledgable about the masons, and their symbols and left some phrases and pictures to play with Freemasonic members of the Tolkien family. And maybe he even tried to treat the Freemasonic beliefs as he treated the Pagan ones – he wanted to "Christianize" them, to find deep Christian meaning in all human beliefs and myths...?

sobota, 12 maja 2018

Sackville vs. Pentonville

Pentonville, London
I do not know if J. R. R. Tolkien ever visited the London graves of his great-great-grandparents (John Benjamin and Mary Tolkien, Bunhill Fields Burial Grounds) or of his great-grandfather (George Tolkien, cemetery by St George the Martyr) or if he knew about his ancestors, clock- and watchmakers from Clerkenwell and Pentonville (see here). But I know about his numerous visits to London (thanks to the work of Ch. Scull and W. Hammond), and about his story of a boy Carrots which though shortly mentioned in Carpenter tells quite a lot:
"These stories had begun during the Leeds years. John, the eldest son, often found difficulty in getting to sleep. When he was lying awake his father would come and sit on his bed and tell him a tale of ‘Carrots’, a boy with red hair who climbed into a cuckoo clock and went off on a series of strange adventures." (H. Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien. A Biography)
I suppose Tolkien could know more about his ancestors than it is described in the biographical books. One of things which stroke me recently when I discovered the Pentonville address of John Benjamin Tolkien and George Tolkien (see here), this 77 White Lion Street, was the name Pentonville and its similarity to Sackville from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. The Survey of London: Volume 47, Northern Clerkenwell and Pentonville, originally published by London County Council, London, 2008 informs that:
The name of Pentonville has fallen resoundingly and, it would seem, irretrievably from favour. Pentonville was perhaps the first new town or suburb in England to have the French suffix that became so widespread in the nineteenth century, especially in North America—though not in London.
Tolkien used the suffix -ville to create the place-name and the family name which was to sound aristocrately. The Tolkien Gateway collected all information about it:
Sackville was the name of a relatively young Hobbit family. Their name had an association with Baggins in that both contained an element for "bag/sack"; Sackville was a slightly more aristocratic version. Tom Shippey argued that this "similarity" also provoked an antonymy: Bag End was used around England as a replacement of French cul-de-sac, "dead end street" - even Tolkien's own aunt Jane Neave lived in a house of that name. Tolkien did not like the Norman conquest of Britain, and made the Bagginses English. The name Sackville, however, is very Norman, as one of the few, if not the only, Hobbit family name.
In my opinion it was not to be "Norman" but rather "Georgian"! Sackville-Bagginses look like reminiscence of the Tolkiens from Pentonville, and the Shire described in J. R. R. Tolkien's books is like England in the times of the Danzig-born John Benjamin Tolkien (1752–1819) with its fashion, clocks and furniture. See this famous picture:


I have discovered that the real Bagginses lived in the same parish as J. R. R. Tolkien's ancestors – see here. See William Baggins from St James, Clerkenwell who died in 1618:


Próba rekonstrukcji osady na Biskupiej Górce
(poł. XVIII w.)

Z dedykacją dla wszystkich mieszkańców Zaroślaka i Biskupiej 

Rys. 1.
M. Deisch, "Targ Węglowy"
– zaznaczyłem kościół Zbawiciela i szczyt Biskupiej Górki, który analizuję niżej
Według Gedanopedii Biskupia Górka, niem Bischofsberg to dziś część Śródmieścia, jednostki pomocniczej Gdańska. Obszar dawnej wsi Górka wyznaczały obecna ul. Biskupia, skraj wzgórz nad (nienależącymi do niej) ul. Spadzistą i Kaznodziejską, skrzyżowanie ul. Stoczniowców i Brzegi, zachodnia część ul. Brzegi do ul. Podmiejskiej i Małomiejskiej, ul. Sikorskiego, Armii Krajowej i Na Stoku. Przed rokiem 1356 pobudowano w najwyższym miejscu wsi drewniany dwór, rezydencję biskupów włocławskich. Bezpośrednie okolice dworu nazywano od 1356 Starą Górką, od XV wieku Biskupią Górką (w 1433 Bischofsberg, w 1438 mons episcopalis, w 1582 Byszkupia Gora). Około roku 1380 biskup Zbylut z Gołańczy wybudował tu dwór murowany, centrum dóbr biskupich w północnej części Pomorza, korzystali z niego: biskup sufragan (zastępca biskupa włocławskiego w sprawach duszpasterskich), archidiakon i oficjał pomorski, ustanowiono włodarza do doglądania stanu zabudowy. W 1433 Biskupią Górkę zajęli i zniszczyli husyci, podczas rokowań polsko-krzyżackich. Istniejąca na zboczu pod wzgórzem wioska w 1444 obejmowała około 35 ha gruntów i liczyła 6 zagród. W końcu XVI wieku było już 15 domostw. Centrum wsi znajdowało się na zakręcie obecnej ul. Biskupiej, powyżej skrzyżowania z ul. Na Stoku. W XVII–XVIII wieku zamieszkiwali ją niepodlegający jurysdykcji Gdańska rzemieślnicy, stanowiąc konkurencję dla gdańskich cechów. Jednym z takich rzemieślników był Christian Tolkien (1706–1791), ojciec dwóch braci Tolkienów, którzy w latach 70. XVIII wieku znaleźli się w Londynie.

Rys. 2
Oryginał grafiki Deischa (1763). Widać nr 4 czyli Biskupią Górkę
Według założonej w roku 1744 księgi gruntowej wsią w imieniu biskupa zarządzał notariusz-sekretarz, był nim najczęściej kanonik włocławski. We wsi znajdowało się wówczas 25 zabudowanych i niezabudowanych parcel. W 1772 nastąpiło ostateczne przejęcie Biskupiej Górki przez władze Gdańska (bez uzgodnienia z biskupem) i włączenie jej w obszar miejskiej jurysdykcji. Miało to zapobiec przejęciu tego strategicznego wzniesienia przez sekularyzujące dobra duchowne władze pruskie. W roku 1780 Mathias Nathanael Wolff założył na bastionie Ostroróg obserwatorium astronomiczne. W okresie wojen napoleońskich Prusacy w latach 1806–1807 odnowili i umocnili fortyfikacje. W latach 1827–1833 Prusacy wznieśli tam  koszary.

Rys. 3
M. Deisch, "Kunszt Wodny"
– w tle Biskupia Górka
W Archiwum Państwowym w Gdańsku przejrzałem dokładnie księgę gruntową Biskupiej Górki (APGd. 300,32/14) poszukując śladów Christiana Tolkiena i jego rodziny w latach 1746–1749 (gdy na pewno mieszkali na Biskupiej, bo w 1746 urodził się na niej Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien, a w 1749 jego siostra Anna Elisabeth; ich młodszy brat Johann Benjamin, prapradziadek J. R. R. Tolkiena, urodził się już nad Kanałem Radunii, w Peterszawie/Zaroślaku). W księdze gruntowej nie znalazłem wprawdzie nazwiska Tolkien, ale wśród właścicieli posesji znalazłem osobę związaną z rodziną Tolkienów w Gdańsku, Martina Musiga. Martin Musig (Music, Musich) urodził się we wsi Kolkewitz k. Chocieburza (Cottbus) na Łużycach w Saksonii i od 1753 był w Gdańsku obywatelem-kupcem. Jego brat Georg Musig był w Gdańsku od 1754 obywatelem-rzemieślnikiem jako kuśnierz. W związku z rodziną Tolkienów znajdujemy Martina Musiga i jego żonę Constantię w roku 1748 jako chrzestnych  Dorothei Constantii Tolkien, córki kuśnierza Michaela Tolkiena i jego żony Euphrosiny, z domu Matthiess (innymi chrzestnymi Dorotki byli: Johann Gottfried Ehwald, rektor szkoły św. Jana, którego znamy jako proboszcza Tolkienów i patrona Braci Morawskich w Gdańsku oraz państwo Lölus, którymi muszę się jeszcze kiedyś zająć). Constantia Dorothea w 1766 została żoną Andreasa Uebelina, mistrza kuśnierskiego. Martin Musig był właścicielem domu nr 5 na Biskupiej Górce od 1777 (APGd 300,32/14, str. 13):
No. 5 („Haus und Erbe mit einem Doppelten-Giebel et caeteris suis attinentys”) – Godefredus Winter (1744–1765), David Deysing (1765), Martin Musich (1777)
Czyżby zatem w tym domu mógł mieszkać w latach 40. XVIII wieku Christian? Czy był na Biskupiej Górce "niepodlegającym jurysdykcji Gdańska rzemieślnikiem"? Domyślam się przecież, że był pozacechowym kuśnierzem (jego najstarszy syn został znanym londyńskim kuśnierzem, a jego brat Michael był w tym czasie mistrzem kuśnierskim w Głównym Mieście). Christian na pewno nie uzyskał podobnego statusu, jak jego młodszy brat. Nie ma go w księgach obywatelskich Gdańska. Ale był szanowanym mieszkańcem Peterszawy, a jego synowie osiągnęli na emigracji w Anglii wysoki status.

Czy mamy jakieś wizerunki Biskupiej Górki z tego okresu? Tak! Ich autorem jest opisywany już na moim blogu Matthaeus Deisch. Biskupia widnieje na marginesie jego wizerunków Głównego i Starego Miasta. Ale widać w tych obrazach pewną konsekwencję (oprócz podkreślonym kolorem domków proszę też porównać inne elementy krajobrazu, drzewka, płoty itd.):

Wizerunek Biskupiej Górki z perspektywy Kunsztu Wodnego, patrz Rys. 3
Wizerunek Biskupiej Górki z perspektywy Targu Węglowego (Kohlmarkt), patrz Rys. 2

Mapa z epoki – zaznaczyłem obiekty z rys. 1
Osada na Biskupiej Górce – większe zbliżenie na domy
Dodatek – domy wg księgi gruntowej Biskupiej Górki:

Mikrofilm z księgą gruntową Biskupiej Górki
Dom nr 5 wg APGd 300,32/14
Księgi parafialne kościoła St Salvator w Petershagen (354,340) + księga gruntowa (300,32/14)

Nazwiska mieszkańców Bischofsberg w latach 1744-1752. Podkreśliłem nazwiska, które pojawiają się i w księdze gruntowej, i w spisie chrzczonych z Biskupiej Górki.

Bischofsberg

No. 1 „Haus und Erbe nebst einem Ueben-Platz et reliquis attinenz suis mit dem Giebel geben Mittag und mit der Seites Wand gegen der Dantziger Wall zu gelegen” [Nr 1. Dom i działka obok Placu Ćwiczebnego (Ueben-Platz) i przyległości ze szczytem skierowanym na południe i ścianą boczną na przeciw Wału Gdańskiego] – spectabilis Andreas Schultz (1744–1759)

No. 2 „Haus und Erbe mit einem Doppelte-Giebel et caeteris suis attinentys” [Nr 2. Dom i działka z podwójnym szczytem i przyległości] – spectabilis Joachimus Nagel (1744–46), Joannes Fridericus Nagel (1746), Bartolomeus Joannes Mentzel (1746–1771)

No. 3 „Haus und Erbe mit einem Doppelte-Giebel et caeteris suis attinentz” [Nr 3. Dom i działka z podwójnym szczytem i przyległości] – Johann Martin Kurtzhals, Johann Gottfried Kurtzhals (1744–1756), Carolus Efraim Barth (1756–)

No. 4 „Haus und Erbe nebst einem Ueben-Platz et caeteris suis attinentys” [Nr 4. Dom i działka obok placu-feudum [Lehen-Platz], ogrodu, tylnych zabudowań itd. z przyległościami] – Joannes Ciechanowski (1744–1745), Petrus et Gabriel Stephens („Fratres Germani”, 1745–1751), Bartolomeus Joannes Mentzel (1751–1755)

No. 5 „Haus und Erbe mit einem Doppelten-Giebel et caeteris suis attinentys” [Nr 5. Dom i działka z podwójnym szczytem itd. z przyległościami] – Godefredus Winter (1744–1765), David Deysing (1765), Martin Musich (1777)

No. 6 „Haus und Erbe cum suis appertinens auff der Ecke neben der Lange Treppen gelegen, Hauschen [?] Einhorn gennant” [Nr 6. Dom i działka z przyległościami na rogu blisko Długich Schodów, domek [?] zwany Jednorożcem] – Christian Erdtman Schmidt (1744–1753), fr. Margaretha Burchart (1753–), Johann Nathaniel Ohm (1753–)

No. 7 „Haus und Erbe cum suis attinentys mit dem Giebel nach der Stadt zu gelegen” [Nr 7. Dom i działka z przyległościami ze szczytem skierowanym ku Miastu] – Johann Jacobsen (1744–1754), Wilhelm Defehr (1754–)

No. 8 – j.w. [Nr 8. Dom i działka z przyległościami ze szczytem skierowanym ku Miastu]

No. 9 „Haus und Erbe mit einem Doppelten-Giebel … neben Haußchen caeterisque suis attinentys” [Nr 9. Dom i działka z podwójnym szczytem obok domku z przyległościami] – Andreas Hirschman (1744–1766), George Sebastian Ginter (1766–)

No. 10 „Haus und Erbe cum suis appertinentys auff der Ecke nach dem Wall zur gelegen" [Nr 10. Dom i działka z przyległościami na rogu na wprost Wału Miejskiego] – Elisabeth Deker (1744–1745, „vidua”), Maria Decker (1745-1757)

No. 11 – j.w. [Nr 11. Dom i działka z przyległościami na rogu na wprost Wału Miejskiego]

No. 12 „Haus und Erbe cum appertinentys welches Hauses angelegenner Garten von Vornen nach den Walle zu gelegen” [Nr 12. Dom i działka z przyległościami, z ogrodem z przodu należącym do domu, który leży naprzeciw Wału Miejskiego] – Niclaus Grau (1742–1751), Martin Seltenschloos (1751–), Johann Henricus Lewerent

No. 13 „Haus und Erbe cum attinentys des zu diesem Haus gehörige Garten formieret die Ecke an dem Walle, hinter dem sub No. 1 gelegene Haus und Garten” [Nr 13. Dom i działka z przyległościami, z ogrodem, który tworzy narożnik przy Wale, za domem i ogrodem należącym do nr 1] – Georgius Hertz (1744–1755), „Christian und Maria Elisabeth Schönborns Kinder”, David Grimm und Christian Schönborn (1755–)

No. 14 „Haus und Erbe cum suis appertinentys, hinter denen Hausen sub No. 17 et No. 18 gelegen" [Nr 14. Dom i działka z przyległościami, które leżą na tyłach domów nr 17 i 18] – spectabilis Joachimus Nagel (1744–57), Joannes Fridericus Nagel (1744–1757)

No. 15 „Haus und Erbe cum attinenz so auff der Ecke lagnest [?] dem so … u... Kirchenhoff über gelegen” [Nr 15. Dom i działka z przyległościami, na wprost cmentarza (?)] – Dorothea Bruhn („vidua”), Petrus et Amandus seu Gabriel Steffen Fratres Germ.

No. 16 „Haus und Erbe cum suis attinentys” [Nr 16. Dom i działka z przyległościami] – Joachim Pfennig (1744–1747; brat pastora z St Salvator?)

No. 17 „Haus und Erbe cum appertinentys”  [Nr 17. Dom i działka z przyległościami] – Johann Klath

No. 18 Ein Haus und Erbe cum attinentys nahe dem fahrlege [?] gelegen” [Nr 18. Dom i działka z przyległościami leżące przy zjeździe (?)] Constantia und Dorothea Emens

No. 19 „Ein Haus und Erbe mit dem Doppelten Giebel et caeteris suis attinentys nach an dem fahranlage gelegen” [Nr 19. Dom i działka z podwójnym szczytem z przyległościami leżące przy wjeździe (?)] – spectabilis Andreas Schultz (1744–1760), spectabilis Bartholomaeus Johannes Mentzel (1760–)

No. 20 „Ein Haus und Erbe nebst einen Garten et caeteris appertinentys” [Nr 20. Dom i działka przy ogrodzie i przyległości]– Anna Maria Ukerts (?), Christian Decker (1744–1753), Maria Decker (1753–)

No. 21 „Ein Haus und Erbe cum attinentys”[Nr 21. Dom i działka z przyległościami] – Johann George Fritsche, Gottfried Gerths, Agneta Bleibels (1744–1759)

No. 22 „Ein Haus und Erbe mit zweie Giebele und einen neben anliegenden uebebauente Platz caeterys attinentys nahe an dem Nachbar Gange gelegen” [Nr 22. Dom i działka z dwoma szczytami i jednym przy leżącym obok placu z przyległościami obok sąsiedniego wejścia] – Jacobus Grohnwaldt, Johann Gräber (1744–1760)

No. 23 „Ein Haus und Erbe et appertinentys” [Nr 23. Dom i działka z przyległościami] – Andreas Lindenberg, Johann Gottlieb Rössler (1744–1764)

No. 24 „Ein Haus und Erbe in doppelten Worder-Husin [?] bestahende et caeteris suis attinens” [Nr 24. Dom i działka z podwójnym … i z przyległościami] – Jacob Molke (1744–)

No. 25 „Ein Haus und Erbe cum suis attinentys nahe an dem Wall gelegen” [Nr 25. Dom i działka z przyległościami leżąca obok Wału] – Johannes Gast (1744–)

Becker, Gottfried,149
Bergholtz, Ephraim, 45 t,
Breese, Erdmann, 85
Danyszewski (Daniszowski), Johann Benjamin, 91, 152
Deber (Deker?), Johann Carl, 44, 122
Deising, Johann David, 73, 140
Dering, Erdman, 71
Dietrich, Heinrich Christian, 45, 121
Froeligk, Johann Christoph, 72
Heidemann, Jacob, 137
Heisich, Carolus, 44
Ingver, Theophilus, 164
Jado, Johann Jacob, 10, 55
Jaeger, Johann Christoph, 34, 102, 161
Kemel, Martin, 154
Kronfeld, Johann Gottfried, 38
Kuba, Johann Gottlieb, 10, 54
Leske, Emanuel, 60
Miran, Johann Simon, 26
Neumann, 77
Rache (Rach), Gottfried, 7, 27, 86
Rakau, Johann Gottlieb, 93
Schultz, George Friedrich, 63,
Schultz, Johann George, 37, 136
Schultz, Carl, 94
Schultz, Christian, 156
Seeling, Michael, 70
Sich, Daniel, 150
Tollkühn, Christian, 38, 109 (Petershagen)
Wenig, Johann, 152
Winckler, Michael, 45, 86, 146
Winter, Johann Caspar, 132
Wulff, Heinrich Christoph, 84, 138

piątek, 11 maja 2018

Wykład w Gdańsku (15 maja, 18.00)

Zapraszam na mój wykład o gdańskich Tolkienach w miejsce, gdzie urodzili się pierwsi Tolkienowie w Gdańsku. Już we wtorek 15 maja w Gdańsku na Biskupiej Górce w Gdańskiej Szkole Wyższej (ul. Biskupia 24b) o godzinie 18.00. Wykład jest otwarty, sala duża. Dobrze żeby znalazło się tam wielu miłośników Tolkiena z Trójmiasta i okolic!


czwartek, 10 maja 2018

Bible of Mary Tolkien (1746–1837)

The Tolkien family (M. Tolkien) is in the possession of the Bible from the eighteenth century which belonged to Mary Tolkien, née Wall (J. R. R. Tolkien's great-great-grandmother, wife of Danzig-born Johann Benjamin Tolkien, 1752–1819). Mary made the records of the births and baptisms of her sons in her Bible: Benjamin Tolkien (born 28 January 1782, baptized 17 February [?] 1782), George Tolkien (born 20 October 1784, baptized 7 November 1784; JRRT's great-grandfather) and John Benjamin Tolkien (born 2 January 1788, baptized 27 January 1788). Benjamin died in 1787, George in 1840 and John Benjamin in 1859.

Source: Geni.com and Ancestry.com

It would be wonderful to be able to see the rest of the Bible of Mary Wall!

niedziela, 6 maja 2018

Aunt Grace and the mystery of Tolkiens' second names

Ancestry.co.uk
Foto: Aunt Grace* (1861–1947) or Grace Bindley Mountain née Tolkien (foto from 1914), sister of Arthur Reuel Tolkien. And her husband, William Charles Mountain (1862–1928).

Another mystery of the Tolkien family: why John Benjamin Tolkien's children have second names: Reuel, Bindley, Winslow, Hammond? (only children from the third marriage of John Benjamin Tolkien have such second names). My answer? They are family names of the Congregationalist ministers like Rev. R. Bindley and Rev. John Hammond (who was probably the minister of the Tolkiens from Handsworth). I will find also this Winslow (maybe Rev. Miron Winslow?) and REUEL!

* Aunt Grace has the appearance similar to Miss Priscilla Tolkien, Mr Simon Tolkien etc. I see here strong Tolkien genes. I imagine that this is the appearance of the Tolkiens from Prussia.


I know that a photo of John Benjamin Tolkien (1807–1896) probably exists. I hope the Tolkien Estate will let to make it public.

Were the Tolkiens from Birmingham Independents?

Heathfield Road, Handsworth (1890) where Arthur Reuel Tolkien was born in 1857
It is five minutes walk to Union Chapel
After John Benjamin Tolkien (1807–1896) married Mary Jane Stowe in 1856 (All Saints, Birmingham – Anglican; in spite they were Non-Conformists they had to register the marrige in an official church) they moved to Heathfield Road in Handsworth, Staffordshire. Great question of my #TolkienAncestry research is in which denomination Arthur Reuel Tolkien, the Professor's father was born. I am not able to find any church act concerning John Benjamin's and Mary Jane's children. And thanks to this Handsworth trace I have found a probable answer.

The Tolkiens from Birmingham belonged probably to this branch of the Congregational (Independent) Church in England which evolved from the Proto-Methodist Connexion of Lady Huntingdon. I have found this trace already in the life of John Benjamin Tolkien (1752–1819) from Danzig (Gdańsk) and London, a grandfather of John Benjamin Tolkien. There was Union Chapel five minutes walk from John Benjamin Tolkien's house in Handsworth.



In the times of the Tolkiens in Handsworth this place was most important among the Non-Conformist communities:
"In Handsworth is a large Independent Chapel, which is called the Union Chapel, and was erected in 1788, but was improved and enlarged in 1818 and 1850. The Rev John Hammond is its minister, and attached to it is a burial ground. There is a Wesleyan Chapel in Perry Barr."

[From History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire, William White, Sheffield, 1851]
Congregational Chapel, Union Row, Handsworth. This photograph was taken in 1870. The chapel was remodelled and expanded by the pastor in residence a year after this image was recorded. The Rev. Robert Ann reopened the building as Handsworth Congregational Church on 24th September 1871. A century later the land was bought for £35,000 by the Birmingham Guru Ravidass Cultural Association. The land was cleared and the 'Shri Guru Ravidass Bhawar' Gurdwara was opened on 10th September 1972 by His Excellency Apa B. Pant.
[ Source]

Why we cannot find any baptism record of the children of John Benjamin Tolkien? This is the answer:

"The original registers of Handsworth Union Chapel (Lady Huntingdon's Connexion until 1805, subsequently Independent), for the period 1788-1837 (Births & Bapts), & 1827-1837 (Bur) are deposited at the Public Record Office."

At the moment I suppose that the first Tolkiens in England being originally Pietist Lutheran from the "Fanatic" parish of St Salvator, Petershagen, Danzig (Gdańsk) joined the Methodists in London – Daniel G. Tolkien joined Wesleyan Methodists and John B. Tolkien joined Lady of Huntingdon's Connexion but died as an Independent inclined to the Moravian Brothers. In London and Birmingham some Tolkiens joined the Freemasonry (United Grand Lodge of England) but John Benhamin Tolkien (1807–1796) was inclined to the Independent Congregationists and he baptized his children in the Union Chapel, Handsworth. The documents did not survive and today we have only the church books from the years 1788–1837. Arthur Tolkien in South Africa cooperated with official Anglican Church (see here – the same did probably his London grandfather, George Tolkien). The Tolkien family in Birmingham were buried at Key Hill Cemetery (Non-Conformist), see here.

piątek, 4 maja 2018

Arthur Tolkien (1857–1896) as a devoted Anglican

I still do not know in which church or chapel Arthur Reuel Tolkien was baptized in Handsworth, Staffordshire. I even do not know if he was born in Anglican, Independent, or non-religious family. But we do know that Arthur Reuel Tolkien was an Anglican in 1891 when he was a sponsor/witness of the Anglican adult baptism of his Unitarian fiancée, Mabel Suffield (see here – it was one of my most unusual discoveries!). Today I have found something really substantial. In the archival magazine The Mission Field. A Monthly Record of the Proceedings of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel At Home and Abroad from 1896 we can read about J. R. R. Tolkien's father:
"And now on the 15th inst. [15 February 1896] we have lost one of our good, devoted business men, Arthur Tolkien, who was treasurer of our Diocesan Finance Board. I had hoped to propose him as a member of the Society (S.P.G.) [Society for the Propagation of the Gospel] before now."
And I will be not bombastic if I say that it is really something new. Now we can see the Professor's father as a member of the Bloemfontein's Diocesan Finance Board (Anglican) and a person known in the circles of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.

Let us remember that the Tolkiens in England were among the first subscribers of the Missionary Society, that the second generation of the Tolkiens sponsored the missions in other parts of the world, and that J. R. R. Tolkien, a devout Roman-Catholic took part in translation of the Jerusalem Bible in the UK. See Tolkien Gateway where we can read (see here):
The Jerusalem Bible is a Roman Catholic translation of the Old Testament of the Bible. Its sources were the original Hebrew and Greek texts, with some contribution from later Greek and Latin translations.
J.R.R. Tolkien was among its contributors, as translator and lexicographer. The extent of Tolkien's contribution to the translation of this book is uncertain, but he is thought to have worked on the book of Jonah, and possibly the book of Job as well.[1]
In Letter 294 to Charlotte and Denis Plimmer Tolkien stated:
Naming me among the 'principal collaborators' was an undeserved courtesy on the part of the editor of theJerusalem Bible. I was consulted on one or two points of style, and criticized some contributions of others. I was originally assigned a large amount of text to translate, but after doing some necessary preliminary work I was obliged to resign owing to pressure of other work, and only completed 'Jonah', one of the shortest books.

Tolkiens poor or rich? (UK Land Tax Redemption, 1796-1822)

I have decided that it is time to compare the incomes and taxes of two London Brothers, John Benjamin Tolkien (1752–1819) and Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien (1746–1813). I have used the data from the UK Land Tax Redemption published on Ancestry.co.uk where we can read: "The land tax was introduced in England in 1692 as a means for raising government revenue and was not done away with until 1963. Land tax records are of value to genealogists because they often list both property owners (proprietors) and tenants, placing them in both a parish and a year":

1804 and some financial problems of John Benjamin Tolkien?
John Benjamin Tolkien, 77 White Lion Street, Pentonville
(14th house from the beginning of the street)

1796, rent 14 pounds
1797, rent 14 pounds | 11 8
1798, rent 14 pounds | 10 s., 6 d.
1799, rent 14 pounds
1800, rent 14 pounds
1801, rent 14 pounds | sum assessed 12 shillings 10 pence
1802, rent 14 pounds
1803, rent 14 pounds
1804, rent not paid | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence 
[from 1804 he is the only person on this street who has a sum exonerated]
1805, rent 18 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence
1806, rent 18 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence
1807, rent 18 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence
1808, rent 10 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence
1809, rent 10 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence  
1810, rent 18 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence
1811, rent 18 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 shillings 6 pence | 10 s. 6 d.
1812, rent 18 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d.
1813, rent 24 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d.
1814, rent 24 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d.
1815, rent 24 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d.
1816, rent 24 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d. 

From c. 1818 it was George Tolkien who was main proprietor of the house:

1818, rent 24 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d.
1819, rent 24 pounds | sum assessed & exonerated 7 s. 6 d.

And c. 1822 George Tolkien moved to 4 High Street, Islington:

1822, rent 55 pounds | sum assessed & not exonerated 1 p. 2 s. 6 d.

145 St John Street, Clerkenwell
proprietor Maitland, occupier George Tolkien 
1809, rent 20 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 3 p. 10 s.
1810, rent 20 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 3 p. 10 s.
1812, rent 20 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 3 p. 10 s.
1813, rent 8 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 1 p. 8 s.

1820, rent 40 p. | 18 s. 40 d.

49 St John Street, Clerkenwell
proprietor George Beaumont, occupier Gravell & Tolkien
1805, rent 20 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 3 p. 10 s.
1809, rent 20 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 3 p. 10 s.
1810, rent 20 p. | sum assessed & exonerated 3 p. 10 s.

3 St Paul's Church Yard (about 15 neighbours):

1812, rent 80 | land tax 11 pounds 13 shillings 4 pence
1813, rent 80 | land tax 11 pounds 13 shillings 4 pence

His neighbours at 77 White Lion Street, Pentonville:

1796: Henry Cook (No. 76, 13th house), Henry Westwood (No. 78, 15th house)
1797: Henry Cook (No. 76, 13th house), Henry Westwood (No. 78, 15th house) 
1798: Henry Cook (No. 76, 13th house), George Wigzel (No. 78, 15th house)
1811, 1815: William Hastings, Elisabeth Higgins
______________

Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien, 60 Cheapside, City of London

1794, rent 168 pounds| Landlords 31 s. 18 d.
1795, rent 168 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 28 p. 11 s.
1796, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p.
1797, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 18 p.4 s.
1798, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 22 p. 8 s.
1799, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 22 p. 8 s.
1800, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 22 p. 8 s.
1802, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p. 5 s. 8 d.
1803, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p. 5 s. 8 d.
1804, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p. 5 s. 8 d.
1805, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 17 p. 10 s.
1806, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 24 p. 10 s.
1807, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 24 p. 10 s.
1808, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p.
1809, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p.
1810, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 17 p. 10 s.
1811, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 17 p. 10 s.

Daniel George Tolkien

1815, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p.

Maria Tolkien 

1816, rent 140 pounds | Personals 5 s. | Landlords 21 p.

Daniel Tolkien was also a proprietor of 27 Bedford Street, Westminster

1801, rent 50 pounds | 7 p. 10 s.
1803, rent 50 pounds | 7 p. 10 s.
1805, rent 50 pounds | 7 p. 1 s. 8 d.
1806, rent 50 pounds | 7 p. 1 s. 8 d.
1807, rent 50 pounds | 12 p.

Pentonville of the Tolkiens

czwartek, 3 maja 2018

Tolkiens, Pentonville and Missionary Society

Yé, utúvienyes! Reverend Joel Abraham Knight (1754-1807) was probably John Benjamin Tolkien's and Mary Tolkien's née Wall friend. He – as the Tolkien couple – was first a member of Countess of Huntingdon Connexion. Knight was ordained at Spa Fields Chapel, London, on 9 March 1783, where he was also appointed a master of the charity school and an assistant preacher. After the break between Lady Huntingdon and John Wesley he dismissed from that connexion and from Spa Fields Chapel and in 1788 became a minister in the Pentonville Chapel. In 1789 he became a pastor of the Tabernacle and Tottenham Court chapels. In 1795 he was also a co-founder of the London Missionary Society (which was supported by both John Benjamin and his brother Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien). His sermons, some of which were published in London in 1788-9, were always richly imbued with the distinguishing doctrines of evangelical Christianity, but they especially taught that "the cordial reception of the doctrine of salvation by grace must necessarily produce obedience to the law of God". In speech he was invariably chaste, and in manner affectionate and pathetic.


Pentonville Chapel
House on the right is the only one left from the original project.
This is how the house of the Tolkiens looked like
I suppose similar was the fate of John Benjamin Tolkien's family. John Benjamin first attended Spa Fields Chapel (where his first wife was buried) but later he moved to White Lion Street (where three generations of the Tolkiens lived under the No. 77; maybe they moved to be closer to Knight). In spite he had to register the baptisms and and his marriges in the official Lutheran or Anglican churches, he was a member of the semi-dissenter Pentonville St James's Chapel parish (the chapel is near his house at 77 White Lion St) where Rev. Knight ministered and then the minister was Rev. Foster. And as we know John Benjamin Tolkien and his wife were buried at Bunhill Fields, at the Non-Conformist burial place.

White Lion Street is named after the former White Lion inn on Islington High Street. Development of the street began with the lease in 1778, for 99 years. In 1779 the first nine houses were being built. Their frontage was not fully built until 1780–3, after the investor had become bankrupt. Most of the rest of the numerous house plots on the street were built on in the 1780s, the 'row' becoming a 'street' in 1789. Small groups on the north side were completed in the early 1790s.

White Lion Street had a flat if not quite uniform appearance, with plain three-storey brick houses of eight rooms, generally with 16–17ft fronts and built with basement areas. No. 72 is now the only representative left. Unusually, Nos 13–29 had front gardens, while Nos 24–29 were built with first-floor blind arcading. Around 1800 White Lion Street retained some gentility, with John Hugh Griffith of the Bank of England in a big house on the south-west corner with Baron Street, William Till running an academy for young gentlemen at No. 57, and other residents described simply as gentlemen. John Coote, an eminent bookseller and publisher, lived here up to his death in 1808, and around 1820 B. R. Baker sold prints from No. 77. By this time Benjamin Harman, a mathematical-instrument maker, was at No. 88 and there were shops on both sides of the road, a butcher's shop doubling around this time as a Methodist Sunday school. In the 1840s Lady Anne Hamilton, a former lady-in-waiting to Princess Caroline, spent her last years in the street. The name of Pentonville has fallen resoundingly and, it would seem, irretrievably from favour. Pentonville was perhaps the first new town or suburb in England to have the French suffix that became so widespread in the nineteenth century, especially in North America—though not in London (and which is also known from Sackville in The Lord of the Rings) (see Survey of London).

We find John Benjamin Tolkien as a parishoner of the Pentonville Chapel (St James's Chapel) in 1804 in the conflict between two pastors: rev. Richard Lendon (pure Anglican Church) and rev. Henry Foster (called "Dissenter"). The Tolkiens defended Foster:

 

John Benjamin Tolkien from White Lion Street, Pentonville was also a supporter of the London Missionary Society (Both Tolkien brothers from Danzig, today Gdańsk, were close to the London Missionary Society: