środa, 28 listopada 2018

Tolk, Christianity and runes
– a thrilling connexion!


According to Troels Arnkiel the word tolk 'translator' occures on the runic stone with Christ

You know this sign!
Harald Bluetooth
Tolk, Christianity and runes – a thrilling connexion, isn't it? As you remember I have found an interesting interpretation of the German term Tolk in Johann Heinrich Zedler's Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon Aller Wissenschafften und Künste. Band 42, Leipzig 1744, Spalte 1127–1128 (see below). Zedler took its Gothic (sic!) etymology from Trogillus Arnkiel's Ausführliche Eröffnung, II "Was die Cimbrischen... Völcker vor Gräber und Töpffe", Hamburg 1703 (see Google Books). According to Pastor Arnkiel the word tolk 'interpres; translator' occured in the famous runic inscription from Jelling (by  Harald Bluetooth!) and according to him it was in Gothic language – today we call this language Old Norse. Arnkiel wrote that it was probably a mistake and that the rune-carver wanted to write folk. Today the most popular interpretation says that this runic inscription reads: ᛫ ᛅᚢᚴ ᛫ ᛏ(ᛅ)ᚾᛁ (᛫ ᚴᛅᚱᚦᛁ ᛫) ᚴᚱᛁᛋᛏᚾᚭ = auk t(a)ni (karþi) kristną, 'and made the Danes Christian.' (about this inscription you can read on Wikipedia).

But according to Arnkiel inscription was as follows:
Book IV, p. 325
Book IV, p. 326
For me it was really nice to find my favourite German term Tolk in the runic context. Unfortunately the Tolk interpretation of the Jelling runic inscription seems now to be incorrect. But it is good to know that in the times of the London Brothers, Daniel and Benjamin Tolkiens the word Tolk was sometimes interpreted as coming from the Gothic language. 

Harald Bluetooth's rune stone by Jon Skonvig (1627)

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